[176] Pombal wished to improve the status of the natives by declaring them free and increasing the mestizo population by encouraging intermarriage between them and the white population. Under the Overseas Charter, all citizens of the Overseas Provinces have the same rights and duties granted and stated in the Constitution. While this process was similar to the agreement between the United Kingdom and China two years earlier regarding Hong Kong, the Portuguese transfer to China was met with less resistance than that of Britain regarding Hong Kong, as Portugal had already recognized Macau as Chinese territory under Portuguese administration in 1979. Indigenous freedom decreased in contrast to its period under the Jesuits, and the response to intermarriage was lukewarm at best. [143] These expeditions lasted for years venturing into unmapped regions, initially to capture natives and force them into slavery, and later focusing on finding gold, silver and diamond mines. According to economic historians, Portugal's colonial trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth, 1500–1800. | SIMON, W. J. Portuguese remains an official language in Macau, alongside Chinese. [86] However, the Ottomans fought off attacks from the Portuguese in the Red Sea and in the Sinai Peninsula in 1541, and in the northern region of the Persian Gulf in 1546 and 1552. Benin's claims over São João Baptista de Ajudá were accepted by Portugal in 1974. [117][118] The French attacks did cease to an extent after retaliation led to the Portuguese paying the French to stop attacking Portuguese ships throughout the Atlantic,[114] but the attacks would continue to be a problem well into the 1560s. The Overseas Ministry keeps its administrative functions and Provincial General Directors are established as advisory and technical secretaries of the provincial Executive Councils. [220], Map of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; member states (blue), associate observers (green), and officially-interested countries & territories (gold), Actual possessions  Explorations  Areas of influence and trade  Claims of sovereignty  Trading posts  Main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence, The Se Cathedral in Goa, India, an example of Portuguese architecture and one of Asia's largest churches. Thus, throughout the century, Brazil gained increasing importance to the empire, which exported Brazilwood and sugar. These heritage activities were extended to the Portuguese overseas territories, increasing the propagandistic impact emphasizing the historic rights over these colonies, advocated by the dictatorial regime. Later this monopoly would be enforced by the papal bulls Dum Diversas (1452) and Romanus Pontifex (1455), granting Portugal the trade monopoly for the newly discovered lands. On the establishment of the Republic in 1910, the provisional government pledge a new organization of overseas territories and a halt of colonial plundering. [50], Vasco da Gama's departure to India in 1497, Portuguese discoveries and explorations: first arrival places and dates; main Portuguese spice trade routes (blue). [139] At Tomar, Philip promised to keep the empires legally distinct, leaving the administration of the Portuguese Empire to Portuguese nationals, with a Viceroy of Portugal in Lisbon seeing to his interests. When other countries were letting go of their colonies in the aftermath of World War II Portugal chose to cling to them even tighter. Forced labor is still the norm in Portuguese Africa as part of public works. [59] By July 1511, Albuquerque had captured Malacca and sent Antonio de Abreu and Francisco Serrão (along with Ferdinand Magellan) to explore the Indonesian archipelago. Authorities diffused the plot before major action began; they executed four of the conspirators and exiled several others were exiled to the Atlantic Coast of Africa. Development (from colonies to overseas provinces), Citizens and subjects of the Overseas Provinces, List of Prime Ministers of the United States of America (A United Kingdom of Scandinavia). Luís Filipe's brother, Manuel, became King Manuel II of Portugal. [203], The rise of Soviet influence among the Movimento das Forças Armadas's military (MFA) and working class, and the cost and unpopularity of the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974), in which Portugal resisted to the emerging nationalist guerrilla movements in some of its African territories, eventually led to the collapse of the Estado Novo regime in 1974. Major discoveries of gold and, later, diamonds in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás led to a "gold rush", with a large influx of migrants. [168], Africans and Afro-Brazilians became the largest group of people in Minas Gerais. [204] Portugal's new ruling authorities also recognized Goa and other Portuguese India's territories invaded by India's military forces, as Indian territories. [31] These were eventually settled by the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, which divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Portuguese and the Spanish along a north–south meridian 370 leagues, or 970 miles (1,560 km), west of the Cape Verde islands. Portugal responded by aiding king Gelawdewos with Portuguese soldiers and muskets. Impoverished social conditions and a high cost of living were among reasons of the revolt. 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